The University of Arizona

Clostridium difficile binding to human cells

Fluorescence micrograph of Clostridium difficile attaching to human intestinal epithelial cells.
Bacteria are stained with a pan-Clostridial antibody (green) and host-cells are stained with the anti-ZO1 antibody (red; to show eukaryotic para-cellular junctions), and DAPI (blue; to show host-cell nuclei).  The infection was set up under anaerobic conditions to visualize live bacteria. For more details of this research project, see Dr. Vedantam’s home page.